Marina Tsvetaeva was born 26 September (8 October) 1892 in Moscow, in a day, when the Orthodox Church celebrates the memory of St. John the Theologian. This coincidence is reflected in several works of the poet. for example, in the poem 1916 of the year:
mountain ash lit.
I was born.
The day was the Sabbath:
John the Revelator. »
Her father, Ivan Vladimirovich, - Professor of Moscow University, a well-known scholar and art critic; later he became director of the Rumyantsev Museum and the founder of the Museum of Fine Arts. Mother, Mary Maine (by birth - from Russified Polish-German family), He was a pianist, student of Nikolai Rubinstein. Grandma M. AND. Tsvetaeva's maternal - polka Maria Lukinichna Bernatskaya.
Marina began writing poetry as early as the age of six, not only in Russian, but also in French and German. A huge influence on the formation of her character provided her mother, who wanted to see the daughter of a musician.
Tsvetaeva's childhood took place in Moscow and in Tarusa. Because of his mother's illness for a long time I lived in Italy, Switzerland and Germany. Primary education received in Moscow, in a private girls' school M. T. Bryuhonenko; I continued it in guesthouses Lausanne (Switzerland) and Freiburg (Germany). At sixteen years he made a trip to Paris, to listen to the Sorbonne short course of lectures on Old French literature.
After his mother died of tuberculosis in 1906 We were left with her sister Anastasia, half-brother Andrew and sister of Valeria father care, which introduces children to classical Russian and foreign literature, art. Ivan Vladimirovich encouraged the study of European languages, I watched, that all children receive a thorough education.
The beginning of creative activity
AT 1910 , Marina published (And in the printing. BUT. Levenson) on their own money first collection of poems - "Evening album", which included mostly her school work. (Collection dedicated to the memory of Mary Bashkirtseva, emphasizes that his "diary" orientation). Her work attracted the attention of famous poets - Valery Bryusov, Voloshin and Nikolai Gumilyov. In the same year Tsvetaeva wrote his first critical article "The magic in poetry Bryusov". For "Evening album" two years later, followed by a second collection of "Magic Lantern".
Getting creative activities Tsvetaeva associated with the terms of the Moscow Symbolists. After acquaintance with a poet Bryusov and Ellis (real name Leo Kobylinsky) Tsvetaeva involved in the activities of clubs and studios at the publishing house "Musaget".
The early work of Tsvetaeva was considerably influenced by Nikolai Nekrasov, Bryusov and Maximilian Voloshin (poet was staying in the house Voloshin in Koktebel in 1911, 1913, 1915 and 1917 years).
AT 1911 year Tsvetaeva met her future husband, Sergei Efron; in January 1912 year - she got married. In September of the same year, Marina and Sergey had a daughter, Ariadne (Alya).
AT 1913 he published a third book - "Of the two books".
Summer 1916 year Tsvetaeva arrived in Alexandria, where she lived her sister Anastasia civil Mauritius Mintz husband and son Andrew. In Aleksandrov Tsvetaeva was written a cycle of poems ("Akhmatova", "Poems of Moscow" and others), and her stay in the city of literature later called "Alexander the summer of Marina Tsvetaeva".
Relationship with Sophia Parnok
AT 1914 , Marina met the poet and translator Sophia Parnok; their relationship lasted until 1916 of the year. Tsvetaeva dedicated Parnok cycle "Girlfriend" poems. Tsvetaeva broke up in Parnok 1916 year; Marina returned to her husband Sergei Efron. Relations with Parnok Tsvetaeva described as "the first catastrophe in their lives". AT 1921 year Tsvetaeva, Summarizing, He writes:
Only love women (woman) or only men (man), obviously excluding the usual reverse - what horror! And only women (man) or only men (woman), deliberately excluding unusual dear - what a bore!
Civil War (1917—1922)
AT 1917 Tsvetaeva year gave birth to a daughter, Irina, who died of starvation in an orphanage in Kuntsevo (then in Moscow) aged 3 years old. During the Civil War proved to be very difficult for Tsvetaeva. Sergei Efron served in the White Army. Marina lived in Moscow, Borisoglebsk in alley. In these years, a cycle of poems "Swans' Encampment", imbued with sympathy for the White movement. In 1918-1919, Tsvetaeva wrote romantic Pieces; created "Yegorushka" poem, "Tsar Maiden", "At a red horse". In April 1920 year Tsvetaeva met with Prince Sergei Volkonsky.
In May 1922 year Tsvetaeva was allowed to leave with her daughter Ariadne abroad - to her husband, which the, Denikin experienced razhrom, as a white officer, now a student at the University of Prague. First, Tsvetaeva and her daughter briefly lived in Berlin, then three years on the outskirts of Prague. In the Czech Republic written by the famous "Poem of the Mountain" and "Poem of the End", dedicated to Constantine Rodzevich. AT 1925 year after the birth of his son George's family moved to Paris. In Paris on Tsvetaeva strongly influenced atmosphere, developed around it because of the activities of her husband. Efron accused, he was recruited by the NKVD and was involved in a conspiracy against Leon Sedov, Trotsky's son.
In May 1926 at the initiative of Boris Pasternak, Tsvetaeva began to correspond with the Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke, then living in Switzerland. This correspondence is dropped at the end of the same year with the death of Rilke. During this period, Tsvetaeva was involved in the publication of "Vorsty" magazine (Paris, 1926—1928), which published some of her works ("Poem of the Mountain", drama "Theseus", the poem "On the Sea" and "Christmas" Rilke memory).
During all the time, spent in exile, Tsvetaeva did not stop correspondence with Boris Pasternak.
Most of the established Tsvetaeva in exile remained unpublished. AT 1928 Paris comes last lifetime collection of the poet - "After the Russian", which included a poem 1922-1925 years. Later, Tsvetaeva wrote about it this way: "My failure in emigration - is, I'm not an emigrant, I'm in the spirit, that is, through the air and on the scale - there, there, from there ... "
AT 1930 he wrote a poetic cycle "Mayakovsky" (on the death of Vladimir Mayakovsky), whose suicide shocked Tsvetaeva.
Unlike poetry, Do not get in the emigre environment recognition, success enjoyed her prose, occupied the main place in her work of the 1930s ("Emigration makes me novelist ..."). At this time, published "My Pushkin" (1937), "Mother and Music" (1935), "House at Old Pimen" (1934), "The Story of Sonia" (1938), memories of Maximilian Voloshin ("Living on the live", 1933), Mikhail Kuzmin («Nezdeshniy night», 1936), Andrei Bely ("Captive Spirit", 1934) etc.
Since 1930 Tsvetaeva family practically lived in poverty. Financially it helps a little Salome Andronikov.
No one can imagine the poverty, in which we live. My only income - from, what am I writing. My husband is sick and can not work. My daughter earns a pittance, embroidering hats. I have son, him eight years. The four of us live on the money. In other words, we slowly die from hunger.
15 Martha 1937 g. He traveled to Moscow Ariadna, the first of the family was able to return to their homeland. 10 October of the same year in France ran Efron, was involved in custom-made political murder.
Return to the USSR (1939—1941)
AT 1939 year Tsvetaeva returned to the USSR after her husband and daughter, I lived on the NKVD dacha in Bolshevo (now the memorial house of M. AND. Tsvetaeva in Bolshevo), neighbors were couple Klepinins. 27 August was arrested daughter Ariadne, 10 October - Efron. 16 October 1941 year Efron was shot in the Lubyanka (according to other sources - in Orel Centrale); Ariadne after fifteen years of imprisonment and exile rehabilitated 1955 year.
During this period, Tsvetaeva almost did not write poems, doing translations.
The war caught Tsvetaeva for translations of Federico García Lorca. Work was interrupted. Eighth of August Tsvetaeva and her son went on the boat to evacuate; eighteenth arrived together with several writers in the town of Elabuga on the Kama. In Chistopol, where most were evacuated writers, Tsvetaeva received a consent to a registration statement and left: "The board of the Literary Fund. I am applying for a job as a dishwasher in the dining room opening Litfonda. 26 August 1941 of the year". 28 August, she returned to Yelabuga with the intention to move to Chistopol.
Suicide and grave mystery
31 August 1941 year committed suicide (hanged) house Brodelschikovyh, where, together with his son was determined to wait. She left three suicide notes: тем, who will bury her (this note later became known under the code name "evacuees"), Aseyev with Sinyakova sisters and son. Original notes "evacuees" is not preserved (It was seized as evidence by police and lost), its text is known on the list, which is allowed to take Georgy Efron.
Murlıga! Forgive me, but then it would be worse. I seriously ill, it is no longer I. Love you so much. understand, I could no longer live. Tell papa and Ale - if you see - that I loved them until the last minute, and tell, that came to a standstill.
Dear Nikolai! Dear sisters Sinyakova! I implore you to take Moore to his Tchistopol - just take it to the sons - and that he studied. I'm for it can do nothing more, and I will destroy only the. I have in the bag 450 p. and if you try to sell all my stuff. In the trunk a few hand-written books of poetry and prose pack with impressions. I entrust them to you. Take care of my dear Moore, he is a very fragile health. Love as a son - deserves. And I - I'm sorry. not bear. MC. Do not leave it never. I would be really happy, if you lived. Leave - took with him. Do not throw!
Dear comrades,! Do not leave Moore. I implore those of you, who can, take it into Tchistopol to H. n. aseev. Steamers - terrible, I beg him not to send one. Help him with the luggage - folded up and drop off. In Chistopol I hope to sell my stuff. I want to, to Moore lived and studied. With me he lost. Adr. Aseeva on the envelope. Do not bury alive! thoroughly check.
Marina Tsvetaeva buried 2 September 1941 Peter and Paul, at the cemetery in g. Yelabuga. The exact location of her grave is unknown. On the south side of the cemetery, near a stone wall, Lost where her last resting place, at 1960 , the sister of the poetess, Anastasia, "Between the four unknown graves 1941 year "established a cross with the inscription" Funeral Marina Tsvetaeva "In this side of the cemetery. AT 1970 by granite tombstone was erected at this place. Later, when he was already at the age of 90, Anastasia began to argue, that the tombstone is located in the exact place of burial of the sisters and all doubts are only conjectures. Since the early 2000s, the place granite tombstone location, framed tiles and hanging chains, by the decision of the Union of Writers of Tatarstan called "official grave of M. AND. Tsvetaeva ". The exposure Memorial complex M. AND. Tsvetaeva in Yelabuga also exemplified card memorial site of Peter and Paul Cemetery, indicating the two "versioned" graves Tsvetaeva - the so-called "churbanovskoy" version and "Matveevskaya" version. Among literary critics and ethnographers single evidentiary point of view on the matter is still no.
Tsvetayev, Ivan Vladimirovich (1847—1913) - father
The first marriage of his father (1880—1890) - with Varvara Ilovaiskaya (1858—1890), A daughter of the historian. AND. Ilovaisky. Children from this marriage:
Valeria Tsvetaeva (1883—1966) - organizer, director and one of the teachers of the state policy art movement (1920-e - 1930, based VHUTEMAS, g. Moscow).
Andrew Tsvetayev (1890—1933); AT. D. Ilovaiskaya died a few days after the birth of Andrew.
The second marriage of his father (1891—1906) - Maria Alexandrovna, Maine (1868—1906).
Marina Tsvetaeva + Sergei Efron (1893—1941)
Ariadna Efron (1912—1975) - daughter.
Irina S. Efron (13.04.1917—15 (16?).02.1920) - daughter (He died of starvation in an orphanage Kuntsevsky).
George S. Efron ("Moore") (01.02.1925—?.07.1944) - a son (killed in action; According to HBS 'Memorial', She buried in a mass grave in g. Braslav Vitebsk region, Belarus). Published his diaries (03.1940—08.1943).
Anastasia (1894—1993) - Russian writer.
For the reason that, that no daughter Ariadne, neither son George had no children, direct descendants after death Ariadne Marina Tsvetaeva left.
In exile, she wrote in "The Hlystovki": "I would like to lie on the Tarusa cemetery Khlyst, under the elder bush, in one of those graves with a silver dove, where grows the reddest and largest in our field strawberries. But if this is a pipe, if not just to me there not lie, but also the cemetery that is no more, I would like to, that on one of those hills, Kirillovna which went to our Shortbread, and we to them in Tarusa, put, with Tarusa quarry, a rock: "Here I would like to lie Marina Tsvetaeva" ". She also said: "Here, in France, and the shadow of my not remain. Tarusa, Koktebel, Yes Czech village - that's the place of my soul ".
On the high bank of the Oka, in her favorite city, according to Tsvetaeva Tarusa will set stone (Tarusa dolomite) with the inscription "Here I would like to lie Marina Tsvetaeva". The first stone was put in the effort Seeds Ostrovsky 1962, but then the monument was removed to "avoid", and later in more peaceful times restored.
The funeral service Tsvetaeva
In Orthodoxy funeral suicide is forbidden, but it may allow in a particular case, the ruling bishop, and 1990 by Patriarch Alexy II gave his blessing for the funeral Tsvetaeva. The basis was the petition to the patriarch of a group of believers, including sister Anastasia and Deacon Andrei Kuraeva.
The funeral service took place on the day of the fiftieth anniversary of the death of Marina Tsvetaeva in Moscow's Cathedral of the Ascension Nikitsky Gate.
In his works, Marina Tsvetaeva uses the unusual for Russian language sign, accents More:
"D'nu bald head against the boards to dance!
D'nu licking boots, shines, suck!
D'kak bryknot it here Deva King in the head:
"What kind of aphid - yes on my boots?»
D'kak prytopnet of ship Rings:
Uncle - Kubarev, in waves - prone!
M. Tsvetaeva. Tsar Maiden. first meeting. »
Marina Tsvetaeva's poem on the wall of a house in Leiden (Netherlands)
AT 1992 a poem by Marina Tsvetaeva "My poems", written on the wall of a building in the center of Leiden (Netherlands), opened a cultural project «Wall poems». curious, that the last, 101-m poet, whose poems made in Leiden monument, He became Federico García Lorca, whose translations of Tsvetaeva worked in the last days of life.
Six months later, after a whirlwind romance with Konstantin Rodzevich Marina Tsvetaeva not only helped his bride to choose a wedding dress, but also gave his own rewritten "Poem of the Mountain", full frantic passion and love for her heavenly destination - Constantine Rodzevich, who did not like and did not understand the poems Tsvetaeva.
After the start of the Great Patriotic War, Marina Tsvetaeva was sent to evacuate the city of Elabuga, that Tatarstan. To pack it helped Boris Pasternak. He brought the rope, to bind up the suitcase, and, assuring its fortress, joking: "The rope still stand, although hang ". Subsequently, he was given, that it was her Tsvetaeva in Elabuga and hanged (according to the testimony of Mark Slonim, By the words of. D. Paustovskogo).
Creative creed M. Tsvetaeva
"The only reference: own hearing and, if you really really need (?) - Theory of Literature Savodnika: drama, tragedy, poem, satire ».
"The only teacher: own work ".
"And the only judge: future".